Resources of Lithuanian History

Let's go and add your own link!
Come and learn Lithuanian mythological resources
  This page provides the set of links to pages of ancient Lithuanian mythology and religion.
More links in HOT.LT site

New resources (2000.06.25)

Lithuania (History)
The Lithuanians may have settled along the Neman (Nemanus) as early as 1500 B.C. In the 13th cent., to protect themselves against the Livonian and Teutonic knights, they formed a strong, unified state which, by absorbing neighboring Russian principalities, became one of the largest in medieval Europe. Between 1386 and 1569, Lithuania gradually merged with Poland. In 1795 it came under Russian control. Independence was declared in 1918, but Poland held Vilnius from 1920 to 1939. In 1940, the USSR forcibly annexed Lithuania. During the German occupation (1941-44) in WORLD WAR II, Lithuania's large Jewish minority was virtually exterminated. The country was returned to Soviet rule after the war. In 1990 Sajudis, a noncommunist coalition, won control of the Lithuanian parliament, and Vytautus Landsbergis became president. The parliament declared Lithuania independent, but the USSR imposed an economic embargo that compelled Lithuania to suspend enforcement of the declaration. In Jan. 1991 the Soviet army unsuccessfully attempted to oust Lithuania's government. After the failed hard-line coup against Soviet Pres. GORBACHEV, the USSR recognized Lithuania's independence, but all troops were not withdrawn until 1993 (by Russia). In 1992 the Democratic Labor (former Communist) party defeated Sajudis, and Algirdas Brazauskas, a former Communist, was elected president (1993). Lithuania signed a free-trade agreement with Estonia and Latvia in 1993.

Chronology of Russian History, The Kievan and Appanage Periods

Belarusian Autocephalous Orthodox Church: A Brief History


The Lithuanian Royal Nobility Association, Heraldry and Nobility
The Lithuanian State was founded as a monarchy in the middle of the thirteenth century. In the second half of the fourteenth century it had reached the peak of its political power. Under the rule and alliance of two brothers, Kiejstut (Kestutis), Duke of Troki; and Olgierd (Algirdas), the Grand Duke of Lithuania, the state stubbornly defended its western frontiers from the encroachment of the Teutonic Order. At the same time Lithuania extended her original territories (Aukstote, the highlands, and Samogitia [Zmudz], the lowlands) to embrace vast areas of the future Ukraine and Belorussia up to Smolensk, Bryansk and the Black Sea Steppes. The military nature of the challenge that faced the state of Lithuania helped to concentrate all authority in the hands of the Grand Duke. While Lithuania proper clung to pagan beliefs (despite repeated attempts made to convert them), the Russian population in the major part of the Grand Duchy professed the Orthodox Christian faith. Russian customs and Russian literary culture characterised the whole of the nobility, including the reigning House, but the native Lithuanian knights played a leading role in the State government and were loath to share their power with the Russian boyars.

History of Belarus

Dates from the history of Estonia

History of Lithuanian Flags
Not much is known about Lithuanian flags prior to the 1200's. The earliest available records talk about "yellow Gediminas towers" on a "red field. This is a clear reference to King Gediminas of Lithuania who ruled from 1316 to 1341. The earliest described Lithuanian flag contains a block shaped outline of the Voruta castle, home of King Gediminas during his reign. Of interest however is that archeological diggings have unearthed Lithuanian bracteate's dating from King Mindaugas'es reign (1234 - 1263) in Gotland and elsewhere showing the same outline on the coins as is attributed to King Mindaugases flags. The earliest known mention of Lithuanian flags is in the "Chronicon Dubicense"; it cites an "insignia Lithwanorium" in the text but does not go on to describe it. Logic would state that it must have been one of the "towers of Gediminas". Ample documentation exists regarding the Lithuanian flags which participated in the Tannenberg battle of 1410 against the Teutonic Knights. Lithuanian units from the Aukstaitija province flew the red and yellow towers of Gediminas. Aside from the towers of Gediminas (also called gates of Gediminas), which now are identified with all things Lithuania, there are two other "national" symbols which have adorned Lithuanian flags since the early Middle Ages - the Apostolic cross and the Vytis.

Archeological findings provide evidence that the Wawel Hill was settled as far back as the early Stone Age.
The Mounds of Krakus and Wanda, legen dary rulers of the settlement inhab ited by the Slavonic tribe of Wislanie, probably date back to the 7th century. Wladyslaw Jagiello, Grand Duke of Lithuania, was crowned King of Poland in 1386 and started the greatest Polish dynasty, which ruled Poland for over 200 years. Cracow became the capital of a monarchy spreading over genuinely Polish ter ritories as well as vast Lithuanian-Russian areas. The royal court played an important role in sup porting artistic and cultural life. Outstanding humanists, scientists and artists came here from Italy, Germany and other countries. Veit Stoss, famous sculptor, came from Nurnberg in 1477 to carve a large altar for St. Mary's Church on the citizens' order. After further rebulding between 1499 and 1536, Wawel Castle was a pearl of Renais sance architecture, boasting the "Zygmuntowska" Chapel - the most beautiful sepulchral chapel in Poland. The castle was decorated with a collection of Arras tapestries ordered from Flanders. It proudly played the role of the royal seat of a powerful country well up in the fashionable world of its time.

History of the Lithuanian State
Lithuania long retained its own pagan religion and remained isolated from major trade routes. Therefore, it was only mentioned in historical sources relatively late (Quedlinburg Annals, 1009 AD). It was divided into local duchies during the 11th to 12th centuries. However, in the mid 13th century, the influential Duke Mindaugas united most of the Lithuanian territories as well as parts of other Baltic countries. This consolidation was hastened by pressure from German orders from the north and west, and Slavs and Mongol-Tatars from the east. The new strengthened government not only resisted these invasions, but also undertook expansion to the east and south.
By the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) stretched from the Baltic to the Black seas; it was one of the largest European states of that time. The GDL played an important role in European history. The western expansion of the Tatars was halted by Lithuanian forces, and thus Europe was spared invasions from the east. The GDL also defeated the Order of the Cross, putting an end to 200 years of fierce warfare between the two powers, and to the Order's expansion into eastern Europe. However, the signing of two unification treaties with Poland (Kreva, 1385 and Lublin, 1569) resulted in the demise of the GDL.

"Gomel: Then & Now": Images of Belarus

LITHUANIA, Into The New Millennium
Videos on Lithuania, and Vilnius, Lithuania - Central Texas Videography

As the Napoleonic army moved towards Vil'na and Mogilev there was the possibility that the Lithuanian and Polish nobles there would look to Napoleon as their saviour. Vil'na was the capital of Lithuania, which had been acquired by Russia as a result of the three partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793 and 1795. Mogilev is in Belorussia, which had once been part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and then part of the Polish- Lithuanian Commonwealth, and had been incorporated into the Russian Empire as a result of the first partition of Poland in 1772. The population of Belorussia was mixed in race and religion. The landowners were for the most part Polish-speaking and Latin-rite Catholic, while the peasants were largely Orthodox or Uniate (Uniates follow the Slavonic rite but acknowledge the authority of the pope).

Baltics Worldwide

A Brief History of U.S. Baltic Policy
Independence 1918. Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia declared independence at the end of World War I. (Before that they were in the Russian Empire of the czars for 120 to 200 years.) The United States did not quickly recognize the three Baltic States, because the situation was fluid.
They were getting control of their territories by ejecting German forces to the west and the Red army to the east. Red communists and White anti-communists were fighting for control of Russia. Hoping White would win, the United States did not want to recognize a territorial reduction of its World-War-I ally before the battle was over.

A brief review of the development of the diplomatic relations between Denmark and Lithuania
The Danish recognition de jure of the Baltic Republics dates back to the year 1921. The same year the three countries joined the League of Nations. The first major international treaty between Denmark and Lithuania was a treaty of July 18, 1923 on trade- and maritime relations, which was entered into on the basis of an exchange of notes between the foreign ministers of Denmark and Lithuania Mr. Cold and Mr. Galvanauskas. The same year a Danish legation was established in the Kaunas - at that time capital of Lithuania. In the following years trade relations between Denmark and Lithuania were first and foremost developed in the field of agriculture. According to statistics in the archives of the former Danish legation in Kaunas, now preserved in the State Archive in Copenhagen, the major part of the Lithuanian export to Denmark consisted of horses and timber. Lithuania imported primarily cars, agricultural machines and textiles from Denmark during that period. With the purpose of further development of trade relations between our countries, Mr. V. Miasulis was appointed Danish consule of honour in Siauliai. Mr. Miasulis was a partner in the biggest firm of agricultural machines in Lithuania at that time "V. Miasulis ir J. Baltrusaitis". Mr. Miasulis remained Danish consule until the close down of the consulate in 1936.

Russsia story: The failed coup of August 1991

Russia: The Times of Trouble
After the death of Ivan IV his son Fedor Ivanovich became a Russian czar. He was a good religious man, yet weak and unhealthy. In fact Boris Godunov, brother of czaress Irina, ruled in the country. In 1591 under unknown circumstances tsarevich Dmitry was killed. Rumors said that this was Boris Godunov who ordered to kill the tsarevich as a most probable heir of throne. After the death of Fedor Ivanovich Boris Godunov took the throne himself. It was the very time when Polish and Lithuanian elite unsatisfied by the results of the previous war accepted the assistance of the Catholic Church and began to work out plans of conquering Russia again. In Russia boyars were also discontented with Boris Godunov and would want to throw him down. In order to fulfil their plans they chose a monk, Grigory Otrepiev who fleed from Chudov monastery, Moscow, and claimed himself to be tsarevich Dmitry that allegedly escaped death by lucky chance.

A Brief History of Medieval Russia
The last encroachment came from the rise and expansion of the state of Lithuania. The details of this belong more properly to Polish history. To Russia the results were of momentous consequence. The upper valley of the Dnieper, including Kiev, the center of old Russia, passed into the hands of Lithuania, and the Russian population, belonging to the Greek Church, passed under the y oke of Catholic Lithuanian masters. Lithuania and Poland formed a dynastic union in 1386, which was turned into an administrative union in 1549. In consequence, all of western Russia which had fallen under Lithuania underwent the curse of Polonization. A serni-feudal system of Polish landlordism degraded the Russian peasants. Their unfortunate lot was made even harder by the proselytizing of the Jesuits and the merciless exactions of Jewish overseers. Upon the Jews, especially, the malignant hatred of the subject agricultural population seems to have exercised itself.

History of Germany
Primary Documents. End of the Classical World

Karaim Home Page

Lithuanian Kredito Unijos Law - History

Lithuanian History:
Tools to understand the unique dimensions of Nations, Periods, and Ethnic aspects that create the major (and sometimes subtle) distinctions and lasting differences that affect all makind. From early beginnings, to civilizations, war, and ultimatley peace and achievement. A starting point for references and scholarly works from opinion to professional historiography.

The history of the Jewish community of the town of Slutsk in the XIX century
Slutsk was mentioned in local chronicles in 1116. After the decay of the Ancient Russian State (Kiev Russia) in XII century, the town became the centre of local duchy. Since the late XIII century Slutsk Duchy occurred in the Great Lithuanian Princedom. Since 1395 Slutsk Duchy was a possession of Olelkovich Duke family, who were a brunch of the Great Prince Ghedemin's dynasty. Dukes Olelkoviches fortified and enlarged the town considerably enough, and, as being strong adherents of the Orthodoxy, founded and built several Orthodox churches and monasteries there. In early XVI century Slutsk warded of few attacks of Crimean Tatars.

History of Belarus and Vitebsk, Photo Gallery of Vitebsk and Belarus

Official website of the President of the Republic of Lithuania

VPU: Department of Lithuanian history


Lithuanian Volunteers in the German armed forces in WWII

Gates of Jewish Heritage

General resources

The battle of Brunwald/Zalgiris at 1410
Never before world has seen such a crusing defeat... The most deadly battle of all times...
"Jesus Save Me" (Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, Ulrich von Jungingen)
"Victory!" (Vytautas the Great, Grand Duke of Lithuania)

From ancient times to World War I
The Baltic tribes established themselves on what is presently known as Lithuanian territory during the 7th-2nd centuries BC. Many centuries passed, however, before the name of Lithuania appeared in records for the first time, in AD 1009, in the Annals of Quedlinburg.

Cultural heritage of the country.
Includes: Lithuanian traditional food recipes, Magazine "Liaudies Kultura" (Folk culture), Links to Lithuanian Organizations Worldwide,

Cultural heritage of the country. Publications.
Bibliographies: Ethnology publications 1997, Some of lithuanian folk music records 1992-1997, Ethnology publications 1994-1996, Folklore publications 1992-1995, Books about Lithuania in english published in 1921-1990.

"THE LITHUANIANS" by Juozas Kudirka;
"LITHUANIAN ROOTS" , edited by Rytis Ambrazevicius

The First Lithuanian Book and Its Cultural Context
LITHUANIAN Home Page - primary Lithuanian web server.
News, reports, events, science & education, cultural heritage, information Society, tourist information, index of other websities.

Lithuanian Customs and Traditions:
Christmas Eve, Christmas, New Year's Day

Information about Lithuania (including description of many Lithuanian cities)

Weekly review of Lithuanian news by Laima Statuleviciene. (in Lithuanian)

The article about The Vilnius Circus history (in Lithuanian)

Lithuanian timeline - a few essential events of Lithuanian history.

Voruta. The weekly about Lithuanian history (In Lithuanian)

Lithuanian History
Lithuania's past is rich and marked by complexity. In the multitude of events, and their uniqueness and effect on neighbouring nations, Lithuania can be compared to any large state.

Lithuania's past and present
A good site with sections about culture, economy, geography, government, history (this page includes Lithuanian flags of 1940th and 1953th), politics, people, press and so.

Lithuanian History A Brief Chronology.
2000BC Lithuanian ancestors settle along the Baltic coast...

Lithuania and Holocaust resources

Arts & Humanities: The baltics: nationalities and other problems
The Baltics area is fraught with cross ethnic mergings, conquerings by different groups, and control by both small groups like the Teutonic and Livonian knights and by larger entities like the nations of Sweden, Poland, and Russia during the roughly eight centuries of Baltic history.

Lithuanian State
The Lithuanian state arose and strengthened to counter the religious fervor of crusading Germanic knights. Lithuania was the last pagan state in Europe to be converted to Christianity.

Lithuania and history.
The history of culture and society, the theory of history, archeology and so...

Northern Light Special Collection - Exceptional collection of historical Lithuanian documents.

Slavic Research Center. Internet Resources for Lithuanian Studies.
General. Country Profiles. News. Politics---- Foreign Affairs. Economy. Law. History.... Human Rights, Ethnic Issues, Culture, Language Religion, Science & Education, Environment, Geography Travel, Miscellaneous

Lithuania: From ancient times to Medieval Ages

Overview of the Lithuanian history
In this section we will find a brief overview of the history of Lithuania with two maps, one showing the Baltic Tribes c. 1200 A.D. and the second showing modern boundries. This history was largely adapted from the exhibition at the Military Museum in Kaunas, Lithuania, and thus is largely military in nature. It is divided into five sections: Primeval Life in Lithuania, The Early Lithuanian State, The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Lithuania's Loss of Independence and Lithuania After World War I. Following this, I have added a section on Paganism in Lithuania.

Selonian, Semigolian, Samogitian, Curonian The old Baltic Selonian, Semigolian and Curonian tribes inhabited in current Lithuania and Latvia, while Samogitians - in western Lithuania.

The origins of the Grand Duchy of Litva (Lithuania)
Why do we still care about the origins of the Grand Duchy of Litva today? Isn't this all over and irrelevant? In the following article you will find some reflections and observations as to why history is still relevant today and why there is a need of "filling the white spaces" that still exist.

The origins of the Grand Duchy of Litva - this article and the following about the work of M.Ermalovich present a view of Belarusian history which, unfortunately, is hardly known yet. This view has resulted from post-communist historical research and is based on ancient historical sources which had been neglected or even ignored before.

Who are the Belarusians, anyway?
What is this strange country - Belarus - which appeared on the map a few years ago, a country that used to be called Belorussia, Byelorussia or even White Russia?

The history of Belarus
According to the Belarusan historian Mikola Jermalovic, the 13th century "conquest" of Belarus by a Baltic Litva is an undocumented myth created in the 16th century. In the course of time, the "conquest" became a convenient historical dogma which no one bothered to question since it supported the status quo in Eastern Europe.

Documents issued by state: Publications of the Lithuanian Metrica

Lithuanian Metrika
Lithuanian Metrika is a 556 volume archive of documents of the State Chancellery of the Great Duche of Lithuania (GDL) which was under the personal control of the Chanceller of the GDL. This archive contained originals and copies of all documents issued in a period from 1386 to 1794 by the State Chancellery.

This is undoubtly the biggest European state archive of this period. Lithuanian Metrika was recorded in 556 volumes (Folio's). This is obviously the most valuable historical source of belarusian and lithuanian nations. All state decisions during 4 centuries of GDL existence are recorded in detail in Lithuanian Metrika.

Statut of the Grand Duche of Lithuania
The Statut was a great achievement of the Belarusian Law. It has been written in XVI c. among first European constitutions and Law Codes. It has served later as an etalon to other european nations. The Statut of the Grand Duche of Lithuania is considered to be one of the main treasures (besides Lithuanian Metrics) of Belarusian, Lithuanian and Polish cultural past.

Under Polish Influence. 1569 - 1795
BREST THROUGH CENTURIES: In 1569 the Lublin treaty wad signed between Poland and Litva, and the two states created a Commonwealth - the Rzecz Paspalitaya. The Polish nobility and the catholic priesthood were the initiators of the Union.

Saint Queen Jadwiga of Poland - The story of Queen Jadwiga's marriage to Jagiello, King of Lithuania.

The Polish/Lithuanian Commonwealth Constitution of May 3, 1791.

ORB Online Encyclopedia - Chronological Table of Events: Teutonic Order

Great Duchy of Litva (Lithuania) in the 14-15th cc.

The map of War between Moscow and the GDL (1654-1667)

The map of Great Duchy of Litva (Lithuania) in the 17th c.

Map of Lithuania, 1882

Archaeological Resource Guide For Europe

The Catholic Encyclopedia: History of the Teutonic Order

Enyclopedia Brittannica takes on the Teutonic Order

The Teutonic Order of Holy Mary in Jerusalem

List of links to resources related to Lithuanian language

ONLINE: Lessons of Lithuanian language

The wars with Moscow, XVI century - Excerpt from A.Sapoka Lithuanian History (In Lithuanian).

The wars with Moscow, XVII century Excerpt from A.Sapoka Lithuanian History (In Lithuanian).

Rulers of Lithuania: from Mindaugas, 1236-1263 to Stanislovas-Augustas Poniatovskis 1764-1795

Lithuania Between War I and War II (1918-1999)

Lithuanian Act of Independence of Lithuania (February 16, 1918)
First Lithuania Council signed the Act of Independence of Lihuania February 16 th, 1918.

Short Remarks about History of Seimas
Modern history of Lithuania's Seimas has started just after re-establishment of nation- state in 1918. On April 4th, 1919 State Council of Lithuania adopted Basic Laws of Temporary Constitution with a provision of fully democratic Seimas' elections. It was based on a proportional electoral system and voting for party lists. Nevertheless, initially counting of votes was based on d'Hondt formula, but later (in 1922) it was changed to Quota method.

Between two world wars
On the 23rd of March, 1918, the German Kaiser announced his recognition of the independence of Lithuania. However, until Germany capitulated in November that same year, Lithuania's international status remained undefined. On the 12th of December, 1918, Sweden was the first state to accord Lithuania de facto recognition.

Pilsudski and wider Lithuania

Antanas Smetona, Lithuanian President, was born in the village of Uzulenis of the present Ukmerge District on August 10, 1874. After finishing elementary school in Taujenai, he studied in Ukrnerge and Liepaja, Palanga, the Mintauja gymnasium.

The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, 1939
Text of the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

Lithuania: The facts of newest history

Lithuanian War Chronicles of Partisans (1994-1961)

Declaration of Reestablishment of Lithuania's Independence (March 11, 1990)
In March 11, 1990 Supreme Council of Lithuania Republic declared the Act of the Reestablishment of Lithuania's Independence. The copy (image) of Act of Independence

Lithuania: Other related information

Site of Samogitia region of Lithuania

Lithuanian culture site

Institute of Lithuanian language
The Lithuanian language, history and facts

Lithuanian culture and history

The list of Web servers in Lithuania

Enter your own link!

We invite you to share an information. If you have or know sities related to Lithuanian mythology, pagan tradition or religion, let's fill-in this form - all visitors (and editor) will be grateful to you. Also, I'll review all these links and will add to main section saving the name of provider of link.

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Here your links are

Site Brief description Provided by
Lietuvos istorijos forumas(in Lithuanian) Tomas Baranauskas
Songin, Songinas, genealogyGenealogy of Songin family Jean-Pierre Sangin
Universal FamilyI am son of Count Roman Emiljan Dambski (1901-1967), Great Prince Lithuania Gedroyc, married 1927 Lwow to Great Princess Paulina Gedroyc (1905-1993) daughter of (Grand) Duke Wladislaw Ignacy Marek Gedroyc (1862-1943) married 1904 Horodec to Margueritte Renee, Marquise de Pourbaix (1880-1953). In 1992 I was commissioned by Paulina to restore family titles, and I would like to restore Lithuania to its peak. I spoke about this to the meeting of nobles in Vilnius town hall 23 April 1994 when I was known in the media as Count Roman Dambski (II) and gave a speech about restoring the Grand Duchy and was elected to the Senate of LBKS. I need your support for this cause. Please let me know if you can help. Wishing you every blessing. Your friend and brother, HRH Prince Roman II. Prince Roman
"Our Lithuania"This site is about Lithuania, travel, Lithuanian books and language. Also about Lithuanian newsletter. Daiva
Wooden CastleThe site, devoted to the project of building a wooden castle in Lithuania, near Anyksciai, and apearance of the wooden castles in general. Available in Lithuanian, English and Russian. Tomas Baranauskas
RambynasI,m brazilian and my father was brazilian, too. My grandmother was lithuanian from Dotnuva and my grandfather was born in Russia, Cheliabinsk in 1907 but his parents were lithiuanians from Rokiskis. I'd like to know anyone who recognize my surname, althgough this surname also can be in Russian or Polish, as a Wyszniewsky Paulo Vysniauskas
Connection 4 HistorySee u there... Sharkiss
www.stuffaboutthings.comWe've got all the things that you need for your school reports, all the little things you need. we got right to the facts, and we know what teachers usually ask, and we give it to you. we have info on all the countries, books, etc,and shopping places. WE HAVE IT ALL!! Anna
Medieval LithuaniaNew address of the same site. Tomas Baranauskas
Medieval LithuaniaThis site is devoted to the history of Lithuania in the Middle Ages (1000-1500). It contains chronology of the main events, sources, list of the Grand Dukes and other material conected with the history of Medieval Lithuania. Tomas Baranauskas
A map of Lithuania and Eastern Europe around 1600 A.D.A map of Lithuania and Eastern Europe around 1600 A.D. Darius
A map of Lithuania and Eastern Europe around 1400 A.D.A map of Lithuania and Eastern Europe around 1400 A.D. Darius
A map of Lithuania and Eastern Europe around 1200 A.D.A map of Lithuania and Eastern Europe around 1200 A.D. Darius
About Lithuania for everybody (in english, german)A lot of information about Lithuania: history, cities, buildings,land, nice photos. Darius Sirs: I'm interested in knowing as much as possible about King Kaupo, but it seems as impossible to found something about him. æCan you help me? Sincerely Yours Juan E.Gasco Argentina Juan E.Gasco
MEMORANDUM ON THE EASTERN AND SOUTHERN BOUNDARIES OF ETHNOGRAPHIC LITHUANIAEthnographic Lithuania encompasses those areas where the inhabitants have common ties of anthropological origins, nationality and culture. The autochtons of Ethnographic Lithuania comprise a general ethnic group based on mutual relations, a common history and cultural self-consciousness. Relying upon the information provided by history, demography, philology and cultural anthropology, the ethnographic boundary of the Lithuanian Nation can be delineated in approximation as follows: The Eastern Boundary: It commences from the southern banks of the Daugava (5 km. to the east of the town of Dysna), southward, leaving Orzechnowo on the Byelorussian side, Prozorokai on the Lithuanian side, to Kublichi, thence in a straight line southwest to the Vilija River (10 km. east of the Dolginavo-llginavo headwaters). That is, the line from the Daugava to the headwaters of the Vilija coincides with the Soviet-Polish border of 1921-1939. Further on, the eastern boundary coincides with the boundary of Lithuania Propria to the upper reaches of the Nemunas River. Deli2
Following the Tracks of a Myth"For more than a decade an idea has been prevalent in Belorussia claiming that the real "Lithuanians" were none other than Belorussians, who founded the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and incor-porated the people of the modern Lithuanian Republic into that entity(1). This idea has its origins in the early years of the century and is propagated today most enthusiastically by M.Ermalovich. The present study, which borrows its title from Ermalovich's book, aims to discuss the idea(2). Ermalovich regards as mythical the fact that Lithuanians (lietuviai) are still called "Lithuanian" rather than "Lietuvians" (lietuvisai). In other words, the axioms of the proof system have been altered. Let us briefly outline how this change came about. ..." Edvardas Gudavicius Deli2
Lost and Found (hopefully)Hi! My name is Paul Chevalier (a French name - from my father's side), but my mother's family name was Gaizaitis (spelling unsure). My grandparents came from Lithuania around the turn of the century (first Russian occupation?) and my grandmothers family name was Zapparaskas(?) Spellings, I'm sure, have changed. Anyone with information - it would be greatly appreciated. Paul Chevalier am interested in history of chemistry in Litva, Lithuania, Lietuva. I have published some articles on it in European magazines and participate in European workshop on the history of chemistry. Now, under leadership of Dr Zenonas Macionis from the University of Vilnius, we are trying to prepare a fundamental history of chemistry in Lithuania. Mudis Šalkauskas
 My ancesters resided in Oshmiana area near Vilna since mid 17th century,Polish shliakhta. Stanislav and his son and grandson had an estate (votchina)in Vileikoviche. Where could it be? I can not trace it. The estate was sold in 1795 to Pozdnyak for 12,000 zl. and still was known to the authorities in Oshmiana in mid 19th century. I've got plenty of interesting documents from St.Petersburg historical archive on my Family since the end of 1690s till now. After Napoleonic war some of Marzecki people moved to the Minsk area and settled there - known as Marecki (Марецкие). My branch live in Moscow and in the Urals (Perm, Cheliabinsk). Some Marzecki live in St.Petersburg. Trying to find some family connections. My address in Moscow: 123592,Москва, ул. Неманский проезд дом 11, кв.133. Tel.: 7-095- 942-5113 (home). Regards. Boris.Boris Marzecki
Litvania, land of Litvins The same page -- but on the mirror site w/ faster connection. Enjoy! Alesia Piasieckaja
Litvania, land of LitvinsLitvania, land od Litvins, is a cultural project to revive traditions, culture and the language (old Belarusian) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Alesia Piasieckaja
Book about LithuaniaA new novel by a Lithuanian-Canadian author that contains a summary of Lithuania's recent war history. Antanas
The Battle of Grunwald 1410 Never before the world has seen such a terrible crushing defeat... At last the most deadly battle of all times on the net!! "Jesus Save Me!!" (Ulrich von Jungingen,Grand Master of the Teutonic Order) "Victory!!" (Vytautas The Great,Grand Duke of Lithuania) Saiva Ziogaite and Miltiades Varvounis
  The 17thC churchwardens' accounts of the parish of Wirksworth, Derbyshire, England, record a donation to one 'John Kraino Kransky, of the great Duchy of Julhuamia'. We are pretty sure that 'Julhuamia' was in fact Lithuania. We would be very interested to know who John Kraino Kransky was, and why the donation was made. This is a pretty long shot, but the tantalising glimpse it gives into a historical link 300 years old, stretching the whole breadth of Europe, makes us anxious to pursue it. Mick Bruff
Baltic AFVs & Armored Trains 1918-40 Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian armored trains and armored vehicles between 1918 and 1940. Unfortunately a one of a kind website. Author desperately seeking contacts in Lithuania!! Thorleif Olsson
The Zemaitis HomepageProvides research on the meaning and origin of the Zemaitis surname and other Lithuanian surnames. Charles John Zemaitis
Christian Bible CenterIf charismatic movements of the 20th century and Faith churches are of any interest to you, you are most welcome to visit the Lithuanian Bible Center home-page. On Behalf of the staff, Rūta Rušinskienė Rūta Rušinskienė


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